Adenoids are the lymphatic tissue that is located at the back of the nose and in your upper throat. They are also known as the pharyngeal tonsils. Their role is to produce antibodies and to trap infectious agents. Generally adenoids are present in younger children as they begin to atrophy around the age of 5 to 7. Adenoids can become enlarged through infection, obstructing airflow and potentially causing recurrent ear infections. The treatment for enlarged adenoids includes medication or, in severe cases, a surgery known as an adenoidectomy.